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Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to permanently form pipes or tubing.

Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to permanently form pipes or tubing.
Issue Time:2016-12-30

Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to permanently form pipes or tubing. One has to differentiate between form-bound and freeform-bending procedures, as well as between heat supported and cold forming procedures.

Generally, round stock is what is used in tube bending. However, square and rectangular tubes and pipes may also be bent to meet job specifications. Other factors involved in the tube bending process is the wall thickness, tooling and lubricants needed by the pipe and tube bender to best shape the material and it is also used in different ways e.g.( tube,pipe wires).

A tube can be bent in multiple directions and angles. Common simple bends consist of forming elbows, which are bends that range from 2 to 90°, and U-bends, which are 180° bends. More complex geometries include multiple two-dimensional (2D) bends and three-dimensional (3D) bends. A 2D tube has the openings on the same plane; a 3D has openings on different planes.

One side effect of bending the workpiece is the wall thickness changes; the wall along the inner radius of the tube becomes thicker and the outer wall becomes thinner. To reduce this the tube may be supported internally and or externally to preserve the cross section. Depending on the bend angle, wall thickness, and bending process the inside of the wall may wrinkle.